Autism 101: The Basics

Written on by Mindy Haas

Since April is autism awareness month, we wanted to do our part in bringing awareness.  Here are some basic facts about autism you may not already know.  

A Brief History of Autism

Swiss psychiatrist Eugene Bleuler first used the term autism in 1911 to describe a subset of his patients, who he believed to have schizophrenia.  It means ‘isolated self’ and derives from the Greek word ‘autos’ (self). 

In the 1940s, psychiatrists began to use the term to describe children with emotional or social problems or who acted withdrawn.  They originally believed the cause of autism was ‘refrigerator mothers,’ a term used to describe mothers who were not warm and loving enough to their children.  A diagnosis often brought about shame to the family and children often spent their lives in institutions.

Also during this period, Hans Asperger, a scientist in Germany, was discovering and researching what is now known as Asperger syndrome.  

Until the 1960s, autism was linked to schizophrenia.  Treatment included LSD, electroshock therapy, and behavior change techniques which usually included pain and punishment. 

Fortunately, in the 1980s & 1990s the focus shifted to behavior therapy, which was methodically administered in a study environment.  The more we learn about autism, the more we can improve on treatment methods and outcomes.  Part of that is providing a correct diagnosis.  In 2003, several separate types of autism, including Aspberger’s, were folded into one category calledautism spectrum disorder.”  

Today, the primary treatment consists of behavioral and language therapy, with other therapies introduced based on the needs of the individual. 

What is autism?

Autism is a bio-neurological disorder, which means it impacts the nervous system.  Common symptoms of autism include difficulty with social interactions, impaired ability to communicate, and repetitive behaviors.

Who has autism?

The latest CDC research indicates that 1 in 59 children are diagnosed with autism.  Males are four times as likely than females to have autism.

What causes autism?

While it’s not known for sure, research shows that a combination of factors contributes to autism, such as genetics and environmental influence.   As scientists research the causes, they are also looking into why autism seems to be increasing.   They have linked specific genetics to autism, but they have not yet determined the environmental factors that can cause it. 

Why is there an increase in autism diagnosis?

Previously, individuals from lower socio-economic standing who lacked access to health care did not receive a diagnosis.  They are starting to receive a diagnosis more frequently now, which is part of the reason for the rise in the autism rate.  There is still ongoing research on genetic and environmental influences on autism diagnosis (see: What causes autism?).  

How is autism treated? 

No two individuals with autism are the same, so there isn’t a one-size-fits-all treatment.  Early diagnosis is beneficial in helping individuals overcome some of the challenges associated with autism.  Autism Speaks organization provides an outline of some common behavioral therapies for autism.

Other autism facts

  • The early signs of autism can appear anywhere between 6 to 18 months.   
  • It’s very common for individuals with autism to have co-morbidities, such as: Fragile X, allergies, asthma, epilepsy, bowel disease, gastrointestinal/digestive disorders, persistent viral infections, Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders (PANDAS), feeding disorders, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Tourette’s syndrome
  • One-third of individuals with autism are non-verbal.
  • Drowning is the leading cause of death of individuals with autism.
  • 11-40 % of individuals with autism have anxiety disorders.
  • 26% of adults with autism suffer from depression.

Additional Resources

Subscribe to our Blog

This form is protected by reCAPTCHA. The Google Privacy Policy and Google Terms of Service apply.

Blog Authors

About Kathryn

Kathryn Lerro

Hi, I’m Kathryn Lerro, mother of two lovely daughters, wife of one fine man.

After 24 years of wandering (thanks to my husband’s Air Force career), we are back home on the East Coast. We currently live in Philadelphia where I enjoy writing, taking long walks, decorating my front window in South Philly tradition, talking to interesting people and eating great food.

As I’ve met people on my travels I’ve become keenly aware that most of us could use a healthy dose of encouragement. It is for this reason that I try to weave a message of hope into everything I write.

About Mindy

Mindy Haas

Hi, I am Melinda Haas, but you can call me Mindy.   A true introvert, I delight in solitude with a good book or a movie.  I like dabbling in nature photography while taking rigorous hikes.  I adore my husband who is a ton of fun.  He shares my wanderlust as well as my appetite for Indian and Thai food.  Very often, you’ll find us dancing to Cumbia in the kitchen while we make dinner.   We also love road tripping and exploring new places. (New England is our new favorite!)

Through my writing, I want to encourage and embolden others to push past the limits they place on themselves.  I want to help people see that they can accomplish more than they think they were capable of.

Disclaimer

The information, including but not limited to, text, graphics, images and other material contained on this website and blog is for informational purposes only. The purpose of this website is to inspire, educate, offer hope and in some instances challenge attitudes and beliefs promoted in our society. We also provide information about Voice and Vision’s services and connections to basic resources in Southeastern Pennsylvania. The information is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, counseling, or treatment or cannot be used for identification of a diagnosis. Please seek help from a qualified physician or professional with any questions you may have regarding a physical, emotional or mental health condition, disability, or addiction.
Please note: The views and opinions expressed by the authors on the blogs are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of Voice and Vision, Inc. Any content provided by our bloggers or authors are of their opinion and are not intended to malign any religion, ethnic group, club, organization, company, individual or anyone or anything.

© 2020 Voice & Vision, Inc. | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Statement | XML Sitemap